Rock climbing equipment: securing a rock climbing harness
The rock climbing harness is one of the most critical of your climbing gear. Proper fitting and donning of the harness is crutial. Many harness have different features for the style of climbing or time of year you climb. Ensure you're properly equipped!
The link between life and death in rock climbing is often compared to the rope that is tied between two climbers or the rope anchored at the top of a top-rope climb. However, without a properly worn harness, the rope would really have no benefit to either climber.
The climbing harness is a very simple piece of equipment. There are several types of harnesses available, the most popular and diverse is the seat harness. It is also very simple to don. It is possible though, to improperly secure your harness to yourself and put you and your climbing partner's lives in jeopardy.
First and foremost, whether you are a seasoned climber or just beginning, read the manufacturers instructions that came with your harness. These will tell you the intricacies and any special instructions about the harness that are needed.
Modern harnesses are made of nylon webbing sewn together to create a system of loops and straps. They include a heavy duty waist strap and adjustable leg straps. Their design not only protects a climber in a fall, it also protects the climber's body during a fall by distributing the force of the fall throughout the pelvic, thighs and buttocks areas of the body. These parts of the body take those kinds of forces much better than the back and neck.
When choosing a proper harness, remember, it should fit you comfortably. When properly donned and doubled back, the waist strap should have two inches of webbing left over. The leg straps should fit your thighs snugly. The type and size of harness is also is dependent on the type of climbing you are going to be doing and the time of year. Winter climbing requires a harness that fits on the outside of your layered clothing. Aid climbers may need extra equipment loops to carry more gear. Consider other features such as padded leg loops for comfort, how many loops you will need to store your hardware and the waist buckle placement. If your harness? buckle is on one side rather than in the center of your waist, there will be less conflict with your tie in and locking carabineer that is clipped to the front of your harness.
Donning the harness is simple. Put it on outside your clothing. Place your legs through the leg loops as if you were donning a pair of pants. Buckle the waist strap. Almost all harnesses require that you double back the waist strap for double protection. Again, ensure that you have at least two inches of waist strap left over. When tying in, the most common knot is the doubled-over figure eight. It should be tied through the upper (waist) and lower (leg) loops webbing. If you are not tied in, a carabineer may be required to hold your leg loops up. Do not tie in to your carabineer; it creates a single point of failure. Remember to follow the manufacturer?s instructions for any idiosyncrasies or special instructions and climb safe!
Accent Lighting - Accent lighting can add important drama to a dining room by creating exciting visual interest. As part of the decorating scheme, accent lighting should be used to spotlight paintings, houseplants, sculpture, and other prized possessions, or to highlight the drapery or the texture of a wall. Good accent lighting can be especially helpful in a dining room to help create an especially attractive space.
Cabinet Lighting - Cabinet lighting should be mounted closer to the cabinet front - not near the back of the cabinet. This allows the light to easily illuminate the object below.
Chandeliers - A chandelier is often the focal point of the dining room. As such it should be hung about 30 inches above the tabletop and should be at least 6 inches narrower than the table on each side.
Color - Think about the importance of color in the dining room, then use proper lighting to bring out that dramatic color.
Dimming Systems - Today's dimming systems enable you to do several things: lower light levels to conserve energy and increase bulb life, vary the mood of a room, and alter the intensity of the light to suit the activity. A dimming system is virtually required in the dining room to create just the right dining ambiance.
Fluorescent Lighting - Fluorescent lighting probably should not be used at all in the dining room unless it is used as a source of indirect light and even then it probably should be dimmable.
General Lighting - General lighting provides a space with overall illumination. Also known as ambient lighting, general lighting radiates a comfortable level of brightness, enabling one to see and walk about safely. In the dining room this light usually is provided by the chandelier or pendant hanging over the dining room table.
Indirect Lighting - Coves, soffits and other concealed locations can be used to provide very pleasant, very effective indirect lighting with xenon light sources or possibly T5 or T8 fluorescent fixtures.
Layers of Light - There are three basic types of lighting that work together to light a home: general lighting, task lighting, and accent lighting. A good lighting plan combines all three types to light an area, according to function and style.
Low Voltage Halogen Lighting - Low-voltage halogen lighting offers a very white, crisp kind of light source that has excellent color rendering capabilities and often makes crystal, cut glass, polished surfaces, and jewelry "sparkle". If you do employ low-voltage halogen lighting in the dining room, you should consider using SoLux? MR16 lamps which provide "the closest thing to natural daylight".
Pendants - In general, pendants should be hung about 30 inches above the tabletop and be about 12 inches narrower that the table on all sides.
Wall Grazing - Wall grazing provides dramatic illumination that reveals the texture of special materials, such as the brick and stone used in fireplaces. Wall grazing is uneven, brighter and scalloped at the top of the wall. For the most exciting effects, use PAR lamps in small aperture down-lights. Locate the down-lights no more than 12 inches from the wall and the same distance apart. Wall grazing also lights polished surfaces, such as marble without distracting reflections in the surface.
Wall Washing - Wall washers are special down-lights that direct light up to the top of the wall. They eliminate the shadows, sometimes called "scallops", which are characteristic of simple down-lights. Do no space wall washers more than 36 inches apart. For the smoothest effect, space wall washers 24 inches from the wall and 24 inches apart. Avoid locating wall washers near doors where they can glare into the eyes of people entering the room.
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