There are many specialty electrical tools and testers, but a few tools are used by every electrical worker.
Electrical work can come in the form of anything from residential electrical wiring to high-tech electronic instrumentation. While there exist many specialty tools for different electrical purposes, there several tools that are universal to all electrical workers.
Wire strippers, or strippers, are the most common and universal tool that is used to do electrical work. Strippers are used to remove insulation from the ends of wires before they are terminated to some type of outlet or connector. They are available in a variety of different types and sizes to accommodate every gauge of wire. Two special versions include electrician scissors and thermal strippers. Electrician scissors have special notches which can be used to strip household size wiring with the assistance of a thumb. Thermal wire strippers use heat to break the insulation after which the insulation can be removed easily by hand.
Another common tool for electrical workers is a digital multimeter. Multimeters are the primary method of measuring voltage, resistance, and amperage within a circuit. The newest models can now also measure frequency, and perform diode checks. While there are meters available that measure only one electrical property, such as a volt meter, most electrical workers agree that having a meter that can read multiple electrical properties is very convenient.
A soldering iron is a tool that is used extensively in the electronics field. Soldering irons are used to permanently repair broken wires and to perform repair on circuit boards. A properly made solder joint entails melting solder in the desired location which creates the new, repaired connection upon drying. Common solder, which is normally a lead/tin mix, in melted around 750-800 degrees Celsius.
A tool that every electrical handy man uses is a crimper. Using a solderless crimp is often far more convenient and mush easier than soldering a broken wire back together. A solderless crimp is installed by crushing it down upon each broken wire end with a crimper, thereby restoring the circuit's electrical continuity. While a soldered connection is viewed as a permanent repair, a solderless crimp is viewed by the electrical community as a quick fix.
When working with electronic instrumentation, it is often necessary to employ the use of a grounded wrist strap. These wrist straps protect sensitive electronics from being zapped by an ElectroStatic Discharge, or ESD. ESD is commonly felt when a person walks across a carpeted, dry room and touches a metal door handle. Since it is possible for a person a accumulate a static charge of tens of thousands of volts, it is important that the technician utilizes an ESD strap so that he is grounded and therefore at the same electrical potential as the equipment, where there is no danger of a static discharge.
A good set of micro-precision screwdrivers can be found in every electronic technicians toolkit. These are typically used to adjust variable resistors and capacitors, and to connect wires to proper terminals. Where micro screwdrivers are normally used in a low-voltage setting, regular-sized insulated screwdrivers are used for high-voltage operations.
These are some of the most common tools that are used by electrical workers. There exists a plethora of different electrical tools and testers, but most of these are meant for a very specific task.
Movie poster collecting has become popular in recent years. Before your start your collection, there are a few things you should be aware of.
In recent years, the hobby of movie poster collecting has become a worldwide passion. Posters that could have been purchased ten years ago for $15 are now going for about $160. Classic posters have become more appreciated as they are becoming harder to find. Over the next few years, they will become even more valuable. As with all collectibles, movie posters are collected for a variety of reasons. Some collectors love the artwork and images on the posters. Others collect for nostalgic reasons. Different categories are collected. One person may collect only classic posters such as Gone With The Wind, while another will add only classic Disney such as Bambi or Mickey Mouse.
Before you think of starting a movie poster collection, there are a few things you should be aware of. Before 1980, posters were made in a variety of sizes. A one-sheet poster measures 27" x 41" - the size of a regular movie poster. An insert is 14" x 36". The artwork depicted on these is usually the same as on the one-sheet poster. Three sheet posters are 41" x 81". This is approximately three times the size of a one-sheet. A half-sheet is printed with credits and artwork that run horizontally. This poster is longer than it is wide.
As with all collections, condition is a great factor when placing a value on posters. A mint poster is one that looks like it just came off the printing press. There should not be tears, stains, holes or bleed through on a mint poster. These posters are rare and the most valuable.
Near-Mint is a poster that is in excellent condition. It may have edge wear or a slight wrinkle. If a poster was made before 1990, you will see fold marks. This does not decrease the value. These posters were folded when delivered to theatres. The artwork of pre-1990 posters should not have any defects.
Very Good condition is a poster that may have slight stains, fading, small tears or minor bleed through. Though these defects may affect the outside area of the poster, the artwork must be in tip-top shape.
Posters in fair to poor condition may have tears, paper loss, fading and defects in the artwork. The rarity of the poster determines the value. Rare posters in poor condition can be restored.
Choose a category for your poster collection and research it extensively. This will give you self-confidence when you buy, sell, or trade items. Vintage posters must be handled with much care. Paper can tear easily if handed excessively. You should also wear white cotton or silk gloves. Skin oil will leave blemishes on the poster as it ages.
Posters should always be stored flat, never rolled or folded. Keep them in a cool, dry place out of reach of sunlight. UV rays will fade the color and images on the poster.
If you wish to display your poster collection, use a plastic sleeve that is acid-free. These cost between $9 and $15, buying the more expensive is well worth the preservation of your posters. Use care when you insert the poster. If possible, recruit an extra pair of hands to ensure the poster does not catch on the sleeve and tear. Be sure to insert an acid-free backboard into the sleeve with each poster. Backboards can be purchased at picture framing stores. This prevents the poster from sticking to the plastic sleeve.
Restoration of a poster is very expensive. Never attempt to do this yourself. If the poster is worth it, hire a professional restorer. Both market and sentimental value should be taken into account when deciding whether or not to have a poster restored.
If you wish to have a poster framed, take it to a professional framer who will recognize its worth. Framed posters should always be matted to prevent them from touching the glass. Backboard should always be acid-free. If your poster is worth more than $200 have it backed with linen and double mounted.
A linen backing makes posters more durable and helps to protect them. Professional restorers use this method to return posters to their original condition. Posters that are linen backed bring higher prices.
Now that you know the basics that apply to movie poster collecting, all you have to do is choose a category, research it and set out to find your first poster. Don't buy the first one you see. Take your time and make a good choice. Buy something that you especially like. Our first poster will always be dear to your heart and will have great sentimental value. It probably will remain in your collection forever.
Movie poster collecting can bring much pleasure to both the collector and those around him though don't expect friends and family to be as excited about your most recent addition as you are. After all, it is your collection.
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